Ответы к ГОСу по истории английского языка
Академическая и специальная литература
Языки и языкознание
История английского языка / History of the English Language
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short history of the origins and development of English
The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three
Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century
Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from
what today is Denmark and northern Germany
At that time the
inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic
speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what
is now W
ales, Scotland and Ireland. The
s came from Englaland
and their language was called Englisc - from which the words England
and English are derived.
Old English (450-1
The invading Germanic tribes spoke
similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old
English. Old English did not sound or look like English today
English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old
English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in
Modern English have Old English roots. The words be, strong and water
for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until
Middle English (1
In 1066 W
illiam the Conqueror, the Duk
of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England.
The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of
French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling
and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class
division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes
spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain
again, but with many French words added. This language is called
Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-
1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to
Early Modern English (1500-1800):
owards the end of Middle
English, a sudden and distinct change in pronunciation (the Great V
Shift) started, with vowels being pronounced shorter and shorter
the 16th century the British had contact with many peoples from around
the world. This, and the Renaissance of Classical learning, meant that
many new words and phrases entered the language. The invention of
printing also meant that there was now a common language in print.
Books became cheaper and more people learned to read. Printing also
brought standardization to English. Spelling and grammar became fixed,
and the dialect of London, where most publishing houses were, became
the standard. In 1604 the first English dictionary was published.
Late Modern English (1800-Present):
The main difference between
Early Modern English and Late Modern English is vocabulary
Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal
, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need
for new words; secondly
, the British Empire at its height covered one
quarter of the
5.1 Old English vowel changes
Sound changes, particularly vowel changes, took place in E at every
period of history
e change begins w
ith growing variation in
prononunciation, which manifests itself in the appearance of numorous
(-phonetic variant of a phoneme in a particular language)
There were 2 types of changes: modification of sets of vowels(palatal
mutation, diphtongosaion, bracking) and -independent changes Most
frequently the change will involve both types of replacement , splitting
and merging (+ex.1).
In an unstressed position only 5 short vowels could occur: a,e, i, o, u.
The OE sound system developed from the PG system. It
underwent multiple changes in the pre-written periods of history
esp in Early OE.
The dev-nt of vowels in Early OE consisted of the modification of
separate vowels + also of the mod-n of entire sets of vowels.
7 long v: a, e, i, u, o, æ, ų
8 short v: a, e, i, u, o, æ, ų, a˚ (nasal)
4 short and long diphthongs ea, eo, ie, io
ndency towards a symmetrical, balanced arrangement
In unstressed position – only 5 v: i,e,a,o,u
Breaking – when short v were followed by l+cons-t, r+cons-t,
h+cons-t - they produced short diphthongs
Early OE OE
l æ ea melkan>meolkan (to milk)
h æ: ea: æhta>
r e eo herte>
sk’: e→ie after palatal cons-ts short
æ→ea and long [e] + [æ] –into diph-s
: e→ie w/ m
ore front close vowel as
æ→ea their first element
j: æ→ea EarlyOE scæmu>OE sceamu
Mutation – change of 1 vowel to another through the influence of a
vowel in the succeeding syllable.
“i-umlaut” (palatal mut-n)- the fronting and raising of vowels
through the influence of [i] or [j] in the immediately following
syllable. Due to the reduction of final syllables. The conditions
which caused palatal mut-n ([i] or [j]) had disap-ed in most words
by the age of writing. These sounds were weakened to [e] or were
altogether lost (OE ān NE one; ān +iζ [r] >ˉæniζ-any)
The labialized front vowels [ų] + [y:] arose through palatal mutation
from [u]+ [u:] and turned into new phonemes (Cf: mūs →mˉųs)
– found in some of the OE dialects. It was
caused by the influence of back vowels into diphth-s.
i>io hira>hiora>heora (their)
e>eo herot>heorat (hart - олень)
a>ea saru>searu (arms, meaning battles)
lengthening – short v followed by ld, nd, mb – become long OE cild
– Mod E child (chi
en – 3 cons-s – doesn’t change)
i/j umlaut was the most imp process of the time:
Could affect all the v-ls + diphth-s except /i/
Produced 4 new phonemes (short æ, ų and long æ, ų)
It’s traces - in Mod E: man-men
Changes in unstressed v-ls
The dev-nt of v in unstressed syllables (final in particular) was dif-
nt from that of stressed syllables. In stressed position the # of v
had grown due to the appearance of new qualitative dif-nces. The
# of v-ls in unstr-d position has been reduced.
Some short v in final unaccented syllables were dropped after long
syllables (w/a long v or a short v + more than 1 cons-t) the v-ls [i] +
[u] were lost.
Gt: ahtau → OE eaht
This process was completed during the earliest part of the OE period.
5.2 The history of the noun
150 ME:1150-1500 Modern E:1500-till now
. 85% - tutonic
oc is no longer in use. 10Century – scandinavian invasion. Then
Norman Invasion- 10000 borrowed words (75% is still in use). In ME :
general reduction of inflexion. 4 cases for sg and 4 cases for pl. -s and -es
– strong declention, -en – weak declention
The O.E.N had 2 grammatical or morphological categories: number and
case. N distinguished 3 genders, but this distinction was not a
, it was a merely classifying feature accounting,
alongside other features, for the division of Ns into morphological
The catergory of number consisted of 2 members, sg and pl. Nouns had 4
cases:Nom, Gen, Dat,
Every noun belong to one of the several declention types which made up
the noun-system in OE. In historic tymes the choice of the Ns belonging
to these types was not determined by any visible cause, it was fixed.
, in prehistoric times all OE Nshad had a suffix between the root
and the inflectional ending , which made up clearly defined groups: the
parts of the word comprising root and stem-suffix is called the stem. In
prehistoric E. here existed the following stems: a-stem & 4 variations /ja/
& /na/ - masculine and neutral Ns: o-stem (/jo/ /wo/); i-stem – all 3
genders; u-stem – masc. Fem.; n-stem – 3 genders; r-stem – mas, fem.;
es-stem – neut.
special type was so called root stem, which formed some cases not by
an inflexional ending, but by the change of the root vowel due to
mutation, The stem-vowels had dissapeared by the time of the earkies OE
writings. They had merg
es with the ending proper Ns, which had
belonged to stems containing /j/ or /i/ always had a mutated root-vowel in
other respects, the inflexions of stems in /a/ /ja/ /wa / and /i/ had
practically merged. Th
e main variation
consist in the presence of final e
or its absence in the Nom and
Acc sg, in /ja/-stems, /j/ may appear in the
The presence or absence of /e/ in masc Ns, as well as that of /u/ in fem
and /?/ of neut Ns depends upon the quantaty of the root-syllable.
vowel is found after a short root-syllable.
The patterns of declention types or given in such a way as to show the
resemblance of dif types as mentioned above; with that purpose one
ending is given for srveral stems.
5.3 The history of the personal pronoun.
OE PersProns fell roughly under the same main classes as modern Prns:
personal, demonst, interrogative and indefinite.
As for the other groups –
relative, posessive and reflexive they were as yet not fully developed and
were not always distinctly separated from the 4 main classes.
OE PersPrns had 3 persons, 3 number in the 1
and 2 numbers in
p. and 3 genders in the 3
In OE while Ns consistently distinguished between 4 classes, PerPrns
began to lose some of their case distinctions: the forms of Dat case of thr
Prns of the 1
p. were frequently used instead of the
important to note, that the Gen case of PrsPrns had 2 main applications
like other oblique cases (к
св падеж). It couls be an object, but for more
frequently it was used as an attribute or a noun determiner, l
posessive prn. (ex. Sunu min, his fэder – my son his father)
The grammatical characteristics of these forms were not homogeneous.
The form of the 1
– min, ure and others – were declined like adjs
to show agreement with the Ns they modified, while the forms of the 3
behaved like Ns. They remained uninflected and didn't agree with the Ns
5.4. The system of Old English verbs. Old English strong verbs
The O.E V
. was characterised by many peculiar features. Though the
had few grammatical categories , its paradigm had a very complicated
numerous morphological classes and employed a
variety of form-building means.
Categories: number_person, mood and tense.
The conjugation (спряжение) of verbs shows the means of form-
building used in the OE verb system. Most forms were distinguished with
the help of inflectional endings or grammatical suffixes; one form- Partic.
II – was sometimes marked by a prefix; many verbs made use of vowel
interchanges in the root; some verbs used consonant interchanges and a
few had suppletive forms. The OE verb is remarkable for its complicated
morphological classification which determined the application
(применение) of form- building means in various groups of verbs. The
majority of OE verbs fell into 2 great divisions: the strong and the weak
verbs. Besides these two main groups there were a few verbs which could
not be put together as “minor” groups.
The main difference between the strong and the weak verbs lay in the
means of forming the principal parts, of the “stems” of the verb. There
were also a few other differences in the conjugation.
All the forms of the verbs, finite (личный) as well as non- finite, were
derived (произошли) from a set of “stems” or principal parts of the verb:
the Present tense stem was used in all the Present tense forms, Indicative,
Imperative and Substantive, and also in the Present Participle and the
Infinitive; it is usually shown as the form of the Infinitive; all the forms
of the Past tense were derived from the Past tense stems; the Past
Participle had a separate stem.
The strong verbs formed their stems by means of vowel gradation and
by adding certain suffixes; in some verbs gradation was accompanied by
There were about 300 S.V
. in O.E. Some of them dropped out of use
owing to changes in the vocabluary
,while most of the remaining V
became weak. They r usually devided into 7 classes: classas 1 – 6 use
vowel gradation, class 7 includes reduplicating verbs, which originally
built their past forms by means of repeating the root-morpheme.
. have the same endings irrespective of class: -an for the Inf., no
ending in the Past sg stem, -on in the form of Past pl, -en in Part.II
(markers: the zero ending in the record stem and -en in Part.II r found
only in S.Vs and should be as their specific characteristics). 1 and 3
classes were the most numerous of all (appr
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