Crane Co. Flow of fluids through valves, fittings, and pipes

Crane Co. Flow of fluids through valves, fittings, and pipes
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Crane corporation, 1982 (4-th printing), 133 стр.
Technical paper No. 410M

So extensive are the applications of hydraulics and fluid mechanics that almost every engineer has found it necessary to familiarize himself with at least the elementary laws of fluid flow. To satisfy a demand for a simple and practical treatment of the subject of flow in pipe, Crane Co. published in 1935, a booklet entitled Flow of Fluids and Heat Transmission. A revised edition on the subject of Flow of Fluids Through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe was published in
1942. Technical Paper No. 430, a completely new edition with an all-new format was introduced in
1957. In T.P. 410, Crane has endeavored to present the latest available information on flow of fluids, in summarized form with all auxiliary data necessary to the solution of all but the most unusual fluid flow problems.

From 1957 until the present, there have been numerous printings of Technical Paper No.
410. Each successive printing is updated, as necessary, to reflect the latest flow information available. This continual updating, we believe, serves the best interests of the users of this publication.

The fifteenth printing (1976 edition) presented a conceptual change regarding the values of Equivalent Length L/D and Resistance Coefficient "A" for valves and fittings relative to the friction factor in pipes. This change had relatively minor effect on most problems dealing with flow conditions that result in Reynolds numbers falling in the turbulent zone. However, for flow in the laminar zone, the change avoided a significant overstatement of pressure drop. Consistent with the conceptual revision, the resistance to flow through valves and fittings was expressed in terms of resistance coefficient L/D instead of equivalent length and the coverage of valve and fitting types was expanded.

Further important revisions included the updating of steam viscosity data, orifice coefficients, and-nozzle coefficients.

T.P. 410M was introduced in early 1977 as a metric version of the fifteenth printing of T.P,
410. Technical data, with certain exceptions, are presented in terms of SI metric units. Exceptions occur in instances where present units outside the SI system (e.g. nominal pipe sizes in inches) are expected to continue in use for an indefinite period, or where agreement has not yet been reached on the specific metric units to be used (as for flow coefficients).
Successive printings of T.P. 410M, like T.P. 410, are updated as necessary to reflect latest flow information available. Arrangement of material is alike in both editions. Theory is presented in Chapters 1 and 2. . . practical application to flow problems in Chapters 3 and 4. . . physical properties of fluids and flow characteristics of valves, fittings, and pipe in Appendix A. . . and conversion units and other useful engineering data in Appendix B.

Most of the data on flow through valves and fittings were obtained by carefully conducted experiments in the Crane Engineering Laboratories. Liberal use has been made, however, of other reliable sources of data on this subject and due credit has been given these sources in the text. The bibliography of references will provide a source for further study of the subject presented.

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