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Filges D., Goldenbaum F. Handbook of Spallation Research: Theory, Experiments and Applications
Wiley-VCH, 2009, 767 pages

Spallation research is based on nuclear reaction mechanism called spallation as a source of an enormous radiation of many different particles such as neutrons, protons, pions, muons, electrons, photons, charged particles, and neutrinos. Originally the occurrence of spallation reactions was first recognized in astrophysics. Most of the early systematic research on spallation processes was done at highenergy accelerators. Cosmic ray physicists refer usually to the spallation reactions as fragmentation. But for all practical applications, spallation reactions are inelastic nuclear reactions in which at least one of the two reaction partners is a complex nucleus.
The objective of this book is not only to gain insights into the complex spallation reaction mechanisms itself, but also to summarize and identify the essential applications. The purpose of this handbook is to provide a description of methods, problems, and issues in spallation research, which will be useful to those readers entering the field and to those already engaged in spallation research, but more specializing in one area.

The handbook has three main parts: Part 1 (Principles); Part 2 (Experiments);
and Part 3 (Technology and Applications).
Part 1, Principles, describes the theory of spallation reaction mechanisms in terms of the nuclear physics processes involved. For the first stage of the reactions – the fast phase – the emphasis is put on the description of intranuclearcascade models. Alteative models are also explained. For the second stage – the slow phase – evaporation models including high-energy fission, subsequent deexcitation, and fragmentation are incorporated. The state-of-the-art used models and codes are addressed with their different features, parameters, and constraints. The basic design parameters for neutron spallation sources are reviewed.

Part 2, Experiments, describes the proton-nucleus ‘‘thin’’ target experiments in terms of secondary particle production such as hadrons, pions, light and intermediate masses, and isotope production performed at various accelerators. A variety of proton-matter induced ‘‘thick’’ target experiments on neutron yield, neutron leakage and multiplicity distributions as well as heating and energy deposition measurements are illustrated. The neutron production is also discussed for primary incident particles other than protons.

Part 3, Technology and Applications, describes the various issues associated with applications in spallation research. Proton drivers for secondary particle production, the features and parameters of high-intensity pulsed and continuous spallation neutron sources, e.g., LANSCE (USA), ISIS (UK), ESS (Europe), SNS (USA), J-PARC (Japan), and SINQ (Switzerland) as well as the concepts of neutron producing targets at beam power levels in the megawatt range are shown in detail. An overview about the research with neutrons is also given.
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