Наноматериалы и нанотехнологии
Академическая и специальная литература
  • формат pdf
  • размер 2.93 МБ
  • добавлен 06 марта 2011 г.
John C. Miller et. al. The handbook of nanotechnology - Business, policy, and intellectual property laws
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , Hoboken, New Jersey, 2005, 384 p.
Introduction to Nanotechnology
Understanding Nanotechnology
The Industrial Structure Giving Rise to Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology Policy and Regulation
Societal and Ethical Implications
Environmental Regulation
The Patent and Trademark Office
FDA Regulation
National Security and Export Controls
Federal Funding
Nanotechnology Business
Starting a Nanotech Company
Business Plans and Strategy
Early Stage Financing
ntellectual Property
Corporate Partnering and Globalization
Consolidation and Standardization
Exit Opportunities
About the Authors

On January 21, 2000, President Clinton unveiled the National Nanotechnology
nitiative (NNI) in a major policy address at Caltech. In his
speech, he announced that his budget would propose almost doubling the
federal investment in nanoscale science and engineering, from $270 million
n FY2000 to $495 million in FY2001. He asked his audience to imagine
materials with 10 times the strength of steel and only a fraction of the
weight; shrinking all the information at the Library of Congress into a device
the size of a sugar cube; detecting cancerous tumors that are only a few cells
n size. The next week, with 51 million Americans watching, Clinton again
referred to the promise of nanotechnology in his State of the Union address.
(His speech writers tried to take this section out to shorten the 89-minute
speech, but Clinton insisted on leaving it in! )
As a strong supporter of the NNI, I was thrilled that President Clinton
had decided to embrace it as one of his top science and technology priorities.
had the privilege of working for President Clinton and Vice President Gore
for eight years, and eventually served as the Deputy Director of the White
House National Economic Council and the Deputy Assistant to the President
for Technology and Economic Policy.
was convinced that there is a strong intellectual case for increasing the
federal govement’s investment in nanoscale science and engineering. First,
nanotechnology has the potential to be what economists call a general purpose
technology—similar in the size and scope of its economic and societal
mpact to the steam engine, electricity, the transistor, and the Inteet.
Second, long-term, high-risk research will be needed to realize the potential
of nanotechnology. Some of this research is beyond the time horizons of individual
firms, and govement support for research is critical when firms cannot
fully capture the benefits of investing in research and development.
Third, the NNI can help address the growing imbalance between biomedical
research and the physical sciences and engineering by increasing support for
critical disciplines such as condensed matter physics, chemistry, materials
science, and electrical engineering. Fourth, the NNI will help create the
workforce of the twenty-first century, since most of the govement funds
support university research. Furthermore, as Nobel Laureate Rick Smalley
has observed, nanotechnology might get our young boys and girls excited
about science and engineering, in the same way that Sputnik or the space race
captured the public’s imagination in previous generations. Finally, global leadership in nanotechnology is up for grabs, and increased federal investment
will help strengthen the U.S. position in this key area.
The development of the NNI began in eaest in September 1998, when
the White House created a working group on Nanoscience, Engineering,
and Technology under the auspices of the National Science and Technology
Council (NSTC). I served as the White House Co-Chair, and Mike Roco,
the point person on nanotechnology for the the National Science Foundation
(NSF), served as the Chair. In January 1999, the NSTC convened a workshop
with experts from industry and academia. University researchers such as
UC Berkeley’s Paul Alivisatos and industrial researchers such as Hewlett-
Packard’s Stan Williams helped identify the most important and promising
R&D opportunities in nanoscale science and engineering.
Throughout 1999, dedicated public servants like Mike Roco (NSF), Jim
Murday (Naval Research Laboratory), Iran Thomas (Energy), Meyya
Meyyapan (NASA), Jeff Schloss from the National Institutes of Health (NIH),
and Kelly Kirkpatrick from the Office of Science and Technology Policy
(OSTP), worked tirelessly to develop a concrete proposal for the President’s
FY2001 budget. My colleagues at the OSTP and I met with senior officials
from the science agencies; we convinced them that we would fight to protect
any increases in nanotechnology research that they proposed as part of their
budget submission to the Office of Management and Budget. We also asked
the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology to review our
proposal, which they strongly endorsed.
also began to ask federal program managers and leading researchers in
the field to identify potential grand challenges—ambitious but plausible
outcomes from increased research in nanoscale science and engineering.
Although I knew that it was impossible to predict what might eventually
come out of the NNI, my time in the White House had taught me that it was
essential to identify some exciting possibilities that could be easily understood
by politicians, reporters, and the general public. Armed with these examples
(several of which wound up in Clinton’s Caltech speech and State of the
Union address), I started briefing the most senior White House staff about
nanotechnology—people like Gene Sperling, the head of the National
Economic Council, John Podesta, the President’s Chief of Staff, and David
Beier, Vice President Gore’s Chief Domestic Policy Adviser.
n the fall of 1999, the White House staff began to identify possible initiatives
for consideration by President Clinton. I convinced Gene Sperling that
nanotechnology should be one of the priorities in the President’s FY2001
budget, as part of a larger increase in support for science and technology that
we called the 21st Century Research Fund. Neal Lane, the President’s
Science Advisor, was also a staunch advocate for the NNI. Working together,
the National Economic Council and the Office of Science and Technology
Policy made a compelling case to President Clinton to support a large increase for the NNI in his budget. In a December 1999 meeting in the White House
Cabinet Room, President Clinton approved the NNI.
Although hardly an impartial observer, I believe that President Clinton’s
decision to launch the NNI served as a catalyst for increased investment by
universities, large companies, venture capitalists, and state govements.
Federal expenditures have continued to rise during the Bush administration,
and will reach nearly $1 billion in the FY2005 budget. Media coverage of
nanoscience and nanotechnology has exploded, and Congress has passed legislation
that authorizes the NNI for four years. Many foreign govements
have also increased their investments in nanotechnology research.
Of course, only time will tell whether these increased public and private
nvestments in nanotechnology will lead to revolutionary advancements in
computing and communications, clean energy, health care, transportation,
advanced materials, environmental applications, national security, and space
exploration. As President Clinton noted in his Caltech speech, some of these
research goals will take 20 or more years to achieve. There is always the risk
that advocates of nanotechnology, whether in govement, industry, finance,
or academia, will overpromise and underdeliver.
What is clear is that we must now address the ethical, legal, policy, regulatory,
and business issues associated with the commercialization of nanotechnologies.
This is why The Handbook of Nanotechnology is so timely. John Miller,
Ruben Serrato, Jose Miguel Represas-Cardenas, and Griffith Kundahl have
done a terrific job of analyzing the key economic and societal issues facing
nanotechnology. How should the EPA regulate nanomaterials, which may
have different environmental and human health effects than the same materials
n bulk? Will the Patent and Trademark Office be able to handle the
rush to file nanotechnology patents without slowing down the rate of innovation?
How can the govement most effectively manage its investment in
nanoscale science and engineering? How can entrepreneurs successfully
launch nanotechnology start-ups? The Handbook of Nanotechnology is invaluable
for anyone who is seeking to move nanotechnology from the lab to the
marketplace in an ethical and responsible fashion.
Похожие разделы
Смотрите также

Bhushan Bharat (ed.). Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology

  • формат pdf
  • размер 93.13 МБ
  • добавлен 24 августа 2011 г.
2nd revised and extended edition. - Springer, 2007. - 1917 p. From the reviews: "This handbook is more like an applications-oriented encyclopedia of the current state of the art in nanotechnology[…] the strong point is its focus on many of the practical aspects of nanotechnology. There are many illustrations, graphs, photographs, and drawing that accompany the text to clearly convey the information, and there is a very extensive reference listin...

Booker R.D., Boysen E. Nanotechnology For Dummies

  • формат pdf
  • размер 8.36 МБ
  • добавлен 23 января 2012 г.
For Dummies , 2005. - 387 p. - This title demystifies the topic for investors, business executives, and anyone interested in how molecule-sized machines and processes can transform our lives. Along with dispelling common myths, it covers nanotechnology's origins, how it will affect various industries, and the limitations it can overcome. This handy book also presents numerous applications such as scratch-proof glass, corrosion resistant paints, s...

Dai L. Carbon Nanotechnology: Recent Developments in Chemistry, Physics, Materials Science and Device Applications

  • формат pdf
  • размер 96.06 МБ
  • добавлен 27 сентября 2011 г.
Elsеvier Sciеnce, 2006, 750 pages Nanotechnology is no longer a merely social talking point and is beginning to affect the lives of everyone. Carbon nanotechnology as a major shaper of new nanotechnologies has evolved into a truly interdisciplinary field, which encompasses chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, materials science and engineering. This is a field in which a huge amount of literature has been generated within recent years, and th...

Murashov V., Howard J. (Eds.) Nanotechnology Standards (Nanostructure Science and Technology)

  • формат pdf
  • размер 4.71 МБ
  • добавлен 08 апреля 2011 г.
Springer, 2011. 260 p. ISBN:1441978526 Written by a team of experts, Nanotechnology Standards provides the first comprehensive, state-of-the-art reviews of nanotechnology standards development, both in the field of standards development and in specific areas of nanotechnology. It also describes global standards-developing processes for nanotechnology, which can be extended to other emerging technologies. For topics related to nanotechnology, th...

Poole Charles P., Jr. e.a. Introduction to Nanotechnology

  • формат pdf
  • размер 18.94 МБ
  • добавлен 24 марта 2011 г.
Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, 1st Edition. Pub. Date: May 2003. Language: English. 400 pages. Introduction to the subject of nanotechnology written at a level such that researchers in different areas can obtain an appreciation of developments outside their present areas of expertise, and so that technical administrators and managers can obtain an overview of the subject. It is possible that such a book could be used as a text for a graduate...

Ramsden J. Applied Nanotechnology

  • формат pdf
  • размер 1.58 МБ
  • добавлен 30 октября 2011 г.
William Andrew, Elsevier, 2009, 163 pages An overview of nanotechnology that encompasses scientific, technological, economic and social issues - investigating the potential of nanotechnology to transform whole sectors of industry from healthcare to energy. Jeremy Ramsden provides a blueprint for those involved in the commercialization of nanotechnology. In Applied Nanotechnology Professor Ramsden takes an integrated approach to the scientific...

Ramsden Jeremy. Essentials of Nanotechnology

  • формат pdf
  • размер 2.99 МБ
  • добавлен 11 февраля 2011 г.
1 edition - Ventus Publishing ApS, 2009. – 126 p. This book introduces the reader to the world of Nanotechnology, and explains the basic concepts and definitions regarding choice of materials, then it proceeds to discuss the areas of application. Guide to the reader What is nanotechnology? Scaling laws Nanometrology Raw materials of nanotechnology Nanodevices Nanofacture Bionanotechnology New fields of nanotechnology Implications of nanotechnol...

Victor E. Borisenko and Stefano Ossicini What is What in the Nanoworld

  • формат pdf
  • размер 9.79 МБ
  • добавлен 23 января 2012 г.
A Handbook on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Wcinheim The book will help undergraduate and Ph. D students, teachers, researchers and scientific managers to understand properly the language used in modern nanoscience and nanotechnol- ogy. It will also appeal to readers from outside the nanoworld community, in particular to scientific journalists

Yao N., Wang Zh.L. (Eds.) Handbook of Microscopy for Nanotechnology

  • формат pdf
  • размер 17.66 МБ
  • добавлен 01 января 2012 г.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2005, 731 pages Nanostructured materials take on an enormously rich variety of properties and promise exciting new advances in micromechanical, electronic, and magnetic devices as well as in molecular fabrications. The structure-composition-processing-property relationships for these sub 100 nm-sized materials can only be understood by employing an array of modern microscopy and microanalysis tools. Handbook of Micro...

Zhou W., Wang Zh.L. (Eds.) Scanning Microscopy for Nanotechnology: Techniques and Applications

  • формат pdf
  • размер 13.22 МБ
  • добавлен 02 ноября 2011 г.
Springer Science+Business Media, 2006, 522 pages Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) can be exploited not only for nanomaterials characterization but also integrated with new technologies for in-situ nanomaterials engineering and manipulation. Scanning Microscopy for Nanotechnology addresses the rapid development of these techniques for nanotechnology, in both technique and application chapters by leading practitioners. The book covers topics in...