Materials for Automobile Bodies

Materials for Automobile Bodies
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Butterworth-Heinemann
An imprint of Elsevier
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP
200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803
First published 2003
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Contents
Preface vii
Acknowledgements ix
About the author xi
Disclaimer xiii
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Overview of content 1
1.2 Materials overview 1
1.3 General format of presentation 5
1.4 Introduction to body architecture and terminology 7
2 Design and material utilization 10
2.1 Introduction 10
2.2 Historical perspective and evolving materials technology 11
2.3 Finite element analysis 18
2.4 One manufacturer’s approach to current design 22
2.5 Panel dent resistance and stiffness testing 29
2.6 Fatigue 32
2.7 Alternative body architecture 35
2.8 Integration of materials into designs 45
2.9 Engineering requirements for plastic and composite components 55
2.10 Cost analysis 56
2.11 Learning points from Chapter 2 59
3 Materials for consideration and use in automotive body structures 61
3.1 Introduction 61
3.2 Material candidates and selection criteria 65
3.3 Aluminium 87
3.4 Magnesium 91
3.5 Polymers and composites 92
3.6 Learning points from Chapter 3 97
4 The role of demonstration, concept and competition cars 99
4.1 Introduction 99
4.2 The BL Energy Conservation Vehicle (ECV 3) and aluminium
structured vehicle technology (ASVT) 100
4.3 ULSAB and ULSAB 40 105
4.4 Concept cars 108
4.5 Competition cars 111
4.6 Key learning points from Chapter 4 128
5 Component manufacture 130
5.1 Steel formability 130
5.2 Aluminium formability 146
5.3 Manufacture of components in magnesium 158
5.4 Production of polymer parts 158
5.5 Learning points from Chapter 5 166
6 Component assembly: materials joining technology 170
6.1 Introduction 170
6.2 Welding 170
6.3 Adhesive bonding 183
6.4 Mechanical fastening 185
6.5 Learning points from Chapter 6 186
7 Corrosion and protection of the automotive structure 189
7.1 Introduction 189
7.2 Relevant corrosion processes 190
7.3 Effective design principles 194
7.4 Materials used for protection of the body structure 196
7.5 Empirical vehicle and laboratory comparisons 209
7.6 An introduction to electrochemical methods 210
7.7 Learning points from Chapter 7 216
8 Environmental considerations 220
8.1 Introduction 220
8.2 Effect of body mass and emissions control 221
8.3 Life cycle analysis (LCA) 224
8.4 Recycling and ELV considerations 228
8.5 Hygiene 237
8.6 BIW design for safety 239
8.7 Learning points from Chapter 8 249
9 Future trends in automotive body materials 252
9.1 Introduction 252
9.2 Factors influencing material change in the future – trends and
requirements 253
9.3 Combined effect of above factors on materials utilization within
‘expected’ and ‘accelerated’ timescales 262
9.4 Learning points from Chapter 9 268
Index 271

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