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Tsoulfanidis N. Measurement and detection of radiation
2nd ed. - Tayllor&Francis, 1995, -614p. (Анг. язык)
Материалы в этой книге, которая является результатом 10-летнего опыта, накопленного автором в преподавании курсов, связанных с радиационными измерениями в университете Миссури-Ролла (США), предназначены для введения учащегося в предмет экспериментальные методы ядерной физики. Книга включает в себя не только то, что новичок должен выучить, но и некоторые справочные материалы, которые потребуются специалистам, работающим в области радиационных измерений. Материалы книги предназначены как для студентов старших курсов, так и для студентов-первокурсников. Предполагается, что студенты, изучающие настоящий курс, владеют аппаратом численных расчетов, решают дифференциальные уравнения и знают основы атомной и ядерной физики. Книга может быть полезна студентам, обучающимся по специальностям ядерная безопасность, экспериментальная ядерная физика, химия (в частности радиохимия), ядерная медицина, дозиметрия, а так же инженерам и ученым, работающим в лабораториях с использованием источников ионизирующего излучения, персоналу атомных электростанций. Структура и содержание книги таковы что читатель, изучивший материал, будет в состоянии :
1 Правильно выбрать детектор для данной энергии и типа частиц;
2 Провести анализ результатов эксперимента, т. е. сделать расчета ошибок, выполнить сглаживание экспериментальных данных, восстановление энергетических спектров, аппроксимацию полученных результатов функциями, и др. ;
3 Выполнить радиационные измерения в физическом эксперименте с обеспечением дозиметрической безопасности.
The first chapter defines the energy range of the different types of radiation for which instruments and methods of measurement are considered; it gives a brief discussion of errors that emphasizes their importance; and, finally, it presents a very general description of the components of a counting system. This last part of the chapter is necessary because a course on radiation measurements involves laboratory work, and for this reason the students should be familiar from the very beginning with the general features and functions of radiation instruments.
The second chapter addresses the very important subject of errors. Since all experimental results have errors, and results reported without their corresponding errors are meaningless, this chapter is fundamental for a book such as this one. Further discussion of errors caused by the analysis of the results is presented in Chap. 11.
Chapters 3 and 4 constitute a quick review of material that should have been covered in previous courses. My experience has been that students need this review of atomic and nuclear physics and of penetration of radiation through matter. These two chapters can be omitted if the instructor feels that the students know the subject.
Chapters 5-7 describe the different types of radiation detectors. Full chapters have been devoted to gas-filled counters, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. Detectors with "special" functions are discussed in Chap. 17.
The subject of relative and absolute measurements is presented in Chap.
8. The solid angle (geometry factor) between source and detector and effects due to the source and the detector, such as efficiency, backscattering, and source self-absorption are all discussed in detail.
Chapter 9 is an introduction to spectroscopy. It introduces and defines the concepts used in the next four chapters. Chapter 10 discusses the features of the electronic components of a counting system that are important in spectroscopy. Its objective is not to make the reader an expert in electronics but to show how the characteristics of the instruments may i nfluence the measurements.
Chapter 11 presents methods of analysis of experimental data. Methods of curve fitting, of interpolation, and of least-squares fitting are discussed concisely but clearly. A general discussion of folding, unfolding, and data smoothing, which are necessary tools in analysis of spectroscopic measurements, occupies the second half of this chapter. Special methods of unfolding for photons, charged particles, and neutrons are further discussed in Chaps. 12 through 14, which also cover spectroscopy. Individual chapters are devoted to photons, charged particles, and neutrons. All the factors that affect spectroscopic measurements and the methods of analysis of the results are discussed in detail.
Chapter 15 is devoted to activation analysis, a field with wide-ranging applications. Health physics is discussed in Chap.
16. I feel that every person who handles radiation should know at least something about the effects of radiation, radiation units, and regulations related to radiation protection. This chapter may be omitted if the reader has already studied the subject.
Chapter 17 deals with special detectors and spectrometers that have found applications in many different fields but do not fit in any of the previous chapters. Examples are the self-powered detectors, which may be gamma or neutron detectors, fission track detectors, thermoluminescent dosimeters, photographic emulsions, and others. The problems at the end of each chapter should help the student understand the concepts presented in the text. They are arranged not according to difficulty but in the order of presentation of the material needed for their solution.
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