Информатика и вычислительная техника
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Wahlster W. (ed.) SmartKom: Foundations of Multimodal Dialogue Systems
Издательство Springer, 2006, -632 pp.

For about 25 years research and development projects in the area of human-computer interaction (HCI) have been pursued with the objective to adapt the communication and interaction with the machine to the needs of the human user, and not vice versa. But it was only within the past ten years that significant and substantial progress in the practical realization of the results in this area was achieved with the development of individual forms of interaction like speech processing or visualization. The resulting question, then, was whether it is possible to develop easy-to-use multimodal user interfaces with an attractive market potential.
This was the starting point for the inter-disciplinary research activities in human-computer interaction conducted by six large strategic cooperative projects with 102 partners from science and industry. In 1999, these six so-called lead projects came out ahead of 89 proposals overall in an ideas competition launched by the German federal govement. These recently finished research projects were supposed to allow human users in both their private and professional environments to multimodally control and diversely use technical systems via natural modalities of interaction like speech, gestures, facial expressions, tactile and graphical input. Ergonomics and user acceptance of these forms of interaction were the key criteria for the development of prototypes that were supposed to have both a strong scientific attractiveness and a high market potential.
One of these lead projects is SMARTKOM. Coordinated by the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence in Saarbr?cken, a consortium of four well-known industrial companies, two small companies and two middle-sized ones, one research institute and three universities was formed. The objective of SMARTKOM was to conduct fundamental research in the area of robust multimodal interaction under realistic conditions, i.e., interaction has to be possible even if the input is underspecified, ambiguous or partially incorrect. The basic idea was to consider and integrate several modes of interaction — in addition to speech especially gestures and facial expressions — instead of only a single modality, and thereby to achieve a substantially better interpretation of the user’s intention. This assessment has been confirmed at inteational conferences worldwide. Thanks to the dedication of all project partVI ners SMARTKOM’s ambitious objectives have been more than accomplished, as for instance:
the situation-dependent recognition of underspecified, ambiguous or partially incorrect input on both a syntactic and a pragmatic level was demonstrated successfully,
a multimodal semantic representation language was developed (M3L) that substantially contributes to a worldwide standardization, and last but not least
speech-based dialogic Web services for car drivers and pedestrians were developed.
Moreover, the know-how gained in the project was protected for the German economy through 52 patent applications, 29 spin-off products and six spin-off companies so far. In the scientific area, the SMARTKOM project resulted in 255 publications, 66 diploma theses, Ph.D. and habilitation theses, State doctorates as well as six appointments to professorships. This makes SMARTKOM the most successful of all 29 lead projects of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research started since 1998. SMARTKOM was funded with 16.8 million e between September 1999 and September 2003. The overall financial means including the matching funds from industry amounted to 25.7 million €.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the broad spectrum of results of the research conducted in SMARTKOM. I thank and give credit to everyone involved in the project but especially to Professor Wolfgang Wahlster’s professional project management and his competent scientific leadership of the distinguished team of researchers.

Part I Introduction
Dialogue Systems Go Multimodal: The SmartKom Experience
Facts and Figures About the SmartKom Project
An Exemplary Interaction with SmartKom
Part II Multimodal Input Analysis
The SmartKom Architecture: A Framework for Multimodal Dialogue Systems
Modeling Domain Knowledge: Know-How and Know-What
Speech Recognition
Class-Based Language Model Adaptation
The Dynamic Lexicon
The Prosody Module
The Sense of Vision: Gestures and Real Objects
The Facial Expression Module
Multiple Biometrics
Natural Language Understanding
The Gesture Interpretation Module
Part III Multimodal Dialogue Processing
Modality Fusion
Discourse Modeling
Overlay: The Basic Operation for Discourse Processing
In Context: Integrating Domain- and Situation-Specific Knowledge
Intention Recognition
Plan-Based Dialogue Management for Multiple CooperatingApplications
Emotion Analysis and Emotion-Handling Subdialogues
Problematic, Indirect, Affective, and Other Nonstandard Input Processing
Part IV Multimodal Output Generation
Realizing Complex User Wishes with a Function Planning Module
Intelligent Integration of Exteal Data and Services into SmartKom
Multimodal Fission and Media Design
Natural Language Generation with Fully Specified Templates
Multimodal Speech Synthesis
Part V Scenarios and Applications
Building Multimodal Dialogue Applications: System Integration in SmartKom
SmartKom-English: From Robust Recognition to Felicitous Interaction
SmartKom-Home: The Interface to Home Entertainment
SmartKom-Mobile: Intelligent Interaction with a Mobile System
SmartKom-Mobile Car: User Interaction with Mobile Services in a Car Environment
Part VI Data Collection and Evaluation
Wizard-of-Oz Recordings
Annotation of Multimodal Data
Multimodal Emogram, Data Collection and Presentation
Empirical Studies for Intuitive Interaction
Evaluation of Multimodal Dialogue Systems
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