Языки и языкознание
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Tiersma P.M. Frisian Reference Grammar
2nd edition. - Fryske Academy, 1999. - 147 p.


A great deal has happened in the world of Frisian linguistics since this book was first published around fifteen years ago. Ideally, a second edition of this grammar would be thoroughly revamped to take into account all of the work that has been done over the past years by linguistic researchers, especially at universities in the Netherlands and the Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy). Unfortunately, I am now a law professor and in light of my present duties simply do not have the time for such an enterprise. Moreover, it appears unlikely that anyone else will undertake this task in the foreseeable future.
Because there is still a need for a relatively comprehensive grammar of Frisian in English, the Fryske Akademy has been kind enough to suggest and support a second publication of this book. The result is the grammar book that you now have in your hands. Additionally, at the time of this writing a Frisian-English dictionary is being completed and is slated for publication by the Fryske Akademy in the near future. The two works combined should make a good reference set for students or scholars beginning their study of Frisian. Those who wish to study the language in greater depth should find the notes and expanded bibliography in this book quite useful.
For those familiar with the first edition, I should note that changes in the text itself have been relatively modest. For the most part, I have limited myself to correcting errors and misprints in the first edition. In some instances, I have tried to state certain points more clearly. I have also replaced a few examples where I found better ones.
The major changes will be found in the notes interspersed in the text and in the bibliography. These changes are almost entirely the work of Jarich Hoekstra, formerly of the Fryske Akademy and now professor at the Nordfriesische Worterbuchstelle at the Christian-Albrechts-Universitat in Kiel, Germany. Because he is so familiar with current research on Frisian, he has been able to add references and commentary to the textual notes regarding recent developments. Dr. Hoekstra has also brought the bibliography up to date. Both of these changes should be extremely useful to those interested in Frisian linguistics. I am very grateful to him for undertaking this task, as well as for his comments on other aspects of the first edition.
This grammar describes standard or literary Frisian (see section 1.3.2). Standard Frisian is based mainly on the dialect called Klaaifrysk, although it incorporates elements of other dialects also. And it tends to be fairly conservative, rejecting many Dutch words and constructions even when they are widely used among ordinary Frisian speakers. Because Standard Frisian is used for most literary efforts, is taught in the schools, and is used for official purposes, it will form the basis for this grammar. At the same time, I have tried to avoid literary usage which is essentially unknown in spoken Frisian, or have commented to that effect in the notes or text.
This material is based upon work supported by the American Council of Leaed Societies and by National Science Foundation grant number BNS 83-
05781. I am grateful to them both. Several experts on Frisian or linguistics commented on drafts of the first edition, including (in no particular order): A. Feitsma, H. Meijering, T. de Graaf, T. Hoekema, S. Dyk, J. Hoekstra, K. van der Veen, G. de Haan, Max Morenbcrg, and Jeanne van Oosten. Matthea Cremers, who is now my wife, helped in proofreading the manuscript.
As to this second edition, I would like to thank Dr. Hitoshi Kodama, Tony Feitsma, and various reviewers for their comments on the original edition of this book. I also appreciate the assistance of the Fryske Akademy in seeing to its publication and distribution. Steven Lasswell meticulously helped correct the proofs and made numerous suggestions for improvement. Obviously, I remain ultimately responsible for any mistakes. I can only hope that in the process of eliminating errors and misprints in the first edition, not too many new ones have crept into this one.
Loyola Law School
Los Angeles, Califoia, 90015
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